Mehtap Söyler

The Deep State and Democratic Consolidation in Turkey

This book generates an analytical framework for identifying path-dependent causes underpinning the deep state that is a modality of dual domination –Herrschaft in a Weberian sense—emerging from the interplay between formal and informal institutions, rules, and norms. This case study applies an innovative methodological approach to concept formation and offers a mid-range theory of deep state that sheds light on the reciprocal relationship between the state and political regimes. The mid-range theory of deep state elucidates the explanatory power of state consolidation (and state transformation) for delineating the demarcation line between autocracy and democracy (as well as between defective and consolidated democracy). It applies process-tracing through theory-driven narrative to contextualize the Turkish deep state, whose (in)formal roots are traced back to the Ottoman Empire, and to pinpoint the risks and opportunities on this path with regard to democratization and democratic consolidation.